The role of N-acetylcysteine amide in defending primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide- induced oxidative stress

groupview

Abstract
Free Radicals and Antioxidants,2017,7,2,172-177.
Published:March 2017
Type:Original Article

The role of N-acetylcysteine amide in defending primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide- induced oxidative stress

Hsiu-Jen Wang1, Yue-Wern Huang2, Shakila Tobwala1, Annalise Pfaff1, Robert Aronstam3, Nuran Ercal4

1Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, USA.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, USA.

3College of Science and Technology at Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

4Department of Chemistry, Richard K. Vitek/FCR Endowed Chair in Biochemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, USA.

Abstract:

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States among adults age 60 and older. While oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD, dietary antioxidants have been shown to delay AMD progression in clinical studies. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a thiol antioxidant, would protect retinal pigment epithelium and impede progression of retinal degeneration. Methods: tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was used to induce oxidative stress in cell cultures. The goal was to evaluate the efficacy of NACA in an in vitro model of AMD in primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). Results: Our data indicates that TBHP generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which reduced cell viability, depleted glutathione (GSH) levels, and compromised glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Pretreatment with NACA significantly reduced ROS generation, restored GSH levels and GR activity, and recovered transepithelial electrical resistance. Pretreatment with NACA did not decrease the number of dying cells as determined by flow cytometry analysis. However, survival was significantly improved when cells were co-exposed to NACA and TBHP after a shortened pretreatment period. Conclusion: Our data suggest that pretreatment with NACA reduces sublethal but not lethal effects of TBHP in HRPEpiC. NACA significantly improves cell survival when administered prior to and during oxidative damage similar to that observed in the development of dry AMD. These results indicate that continuation of a thiol antioxidant regimen for treatment of AMD is beneficial throughout the course of the disease, and NACA is a potent antioxidant that should be further evaluated for this purpose.

About Journal

Founded:  In 2004, as the PHCOG.NET – a non-profit private organization dedicated to Natural Products Research leading to develop promising drugs. Our main mission is to make information on herbal drug research readily available in different formats to suit the individual needs. About Journal : Free Radicals and Antioxidants [ISSN: 2231-2536] is an online peer reviewed publication dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of free radical biology and both natural and synthetic antioxidants. Free radicals, which are defined as molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in their outmost atomic or molecular orbital have emerged as double edged swords.The Free Radicals and Antioxidants Journal aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts that provide new insights into the biology of free radicals, including their generation, degradation, modulation, role in cellular function and cell signaling. The submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of Free Radical Biology and Antioxidants are also welcomed. Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.
Distinctions:  The most widely read, cited, and known Free Radicals and Antioxidants and website is well browsed with all the articles published. More than 20,000 readers in nearly every country in the world each month
Editorial Board
Subjects Covered : Natural Products, Free Radical Biology, Antioxidants
ISSN : 2231-2536 ; Frequency : Half Yearly - Rapid at a time publication (2 issues/year)
Indexed and Abstracted in : Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS.
Rapid publication: Average time from submission to first decision is 30 days and from acceptance to In Press online  publication is 45 days.
Open Access Journal: Free Radicals and Antioxidants is an open access journal, which allows authors to fund their article to be open access from publication.