Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-01-29T00:55:39-05:00 S Chakraborty Open Journal Systems <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> Wound Healing Activity of Herbal Ointment Containing the Extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowers and Curcuma longa Rhizomes 2021-01-29T00:55:39-05:00 Fazlina Mustaffa Subramani Parasuraman Geethaa Sahgal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate wound healing activity of herbal ointment containing the extracts of<em> Hibiscus rosa-sinensis</em> flowers and <em>Curcuma longa</em> rhizomes. <strong>Methodology:</strong><em> H. rosa-sinensis</em> flowers and <em>C. longa</em> rhizomes were extracted using 95% ethanol. <em>H. rosa-sinensis </em>and<em> Hibiscus rosa-sinensis&nbsp;</em>ointment were prepared using paraffin wax, lanolin and petroleum jelly. Ointment formulation was applied once daily on the excision wound made on Sprague Dawley rats for 20 days. <strong>Results: </strong>On day 20, the treatment group showed a significant increase in wound contraction which was 93.52 ± 1.38% when compared to control (87.62 ± 1.48%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Herbal ointment exhibited significant wound healing activity in rat excision wound model.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020 Importance of Epigallocatechin and its Health Benefits 2021-01-28T23:46:33-05:00 Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian Wenli Sun Qi Cheng <p style="text-align: justify;">Natural products have a wide range of diversity of multidimensional chemical structures which play a vital role which show the important nature as golden source for achieving the herbal drug discovery. Literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, ISI web of knowledge and Google Scholar. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the most abundant tea polyphenol, followed by other polyphenols, namely, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin.The most important pharmacological activities of EGCG are antineoplastic, HIV infection, hypertension and associated complications, type II diabetes mellitus, its usage as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and its application in Alzheimer, Parkinson and Osteoporosis. Natural products have played a key role in drug discovery and development in modern days.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020 Sphaeranthus indicus: A Promising Antimicrobial Agent 2021-01-29T00:01:56-05:00 Prasoon Kumar Saxena Shagun Upadhyay Shivani Lodha <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial property of the solvent extracts of flowers and aerial parts of <em>S. indicus</em>. <strong>Methods:</strong> The flowers and the aerial parts of <em>Sphaeranthus indicus </em>were extracted with n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone respectively. The extracts were analyzed for the antimicrobial effect by disc diffusion method at concentrations of 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/disc. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was tested using broth micro dilution method at concentrations ranging from 5 to 0.039 mg/ml. <strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity in hexane extract of flower and aerial parts. The MIC was seen at 0.15 mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and the highest MIC (5 mg/ml) was noted for S. epidermidis. The n-hexane extracts of flower and aerial parts showed MIC as 0.15 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively against <em>Candida albicans</em>.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Concluding it can be said that the <em>S. indicus </em>flower n-hexane extract showed promising antimicrobial agent.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020 Potential Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Medicinal Plant Trachyspermum ammi L. Seeds 2021-01-29T00:19:19-05:00 Ravi Sahukari Jyothi Punabaka Praveen Kumar Yamala Shanmugam Bhasha Venkata Subbaiah Ganjikunta Sathyavelu Reddy Kesireddy <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> A highly valued medicinal plant belonging to the family <em>Apiaceae </em>is <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> L. The seeds of this plant are used as spice and are traditionally used for the treatment of many human and animal illnesses. <strong>Objectives: </strong>In this research study, we aimed at quantitatively estimating the phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of <em>T. ammi</em> seeds. <strong>Methods: </strong>Quantification of phenol and flavonoid phytochemicals have been estimated in different solvent extracts of seeds. Further, the antioxidant activity was determined by performing DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total antioxidant activity assays. Additionally, antibacterial activity was assessed against three bacterial species using well-diffusion method.<strong> Results:</strong> The findings showed in quantitative estimation that phenols and flavonoids were rich in extracts. Acetone, Methanol and Ethanol extracts were potentially scavenged DPPH radical, lipid peroxidation nullified and metal ions such as Fe and Mo reduced. At the same time, effective antibacterial activity on <em>E. coli, S. aureus</em> and <em>Pseudomonas </em>bacterial species was seen in Chloroform and Methanol extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, free radical scavenging, reduction of metals and antibacterial activity of different extracts of <em>T. ammi </em>was indicative of the presence of enormous amounts of phenols and flavonoids. Further work on these extracts needs to be done to isolate the active compounds and, to treat free radicals and related bacterial diseases.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020 Evaluations of Antioxidant Effects of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts Claimed to Treat Kidney Stone Disease 2021-01-29T00:29:43-05:00 Tilahun Alelign Asfaw Debella Beyene Petros <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Free radicals are capable of inducing oxidative damage, which causes various human diseases. However, antioxidants reduce the risk of diseases related to reactive oxygen species. Medicinal plants such as <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> leaves, <em>Satureja punctata</em> aerial parts, <em>Aloe pulcherrima</em> gel, <em>Gomphocarpus fruticosus</em> leaves and<em> Commiphora myrrha</em> resins were claimed to treat various ailments including urolithiasis in Ethiopia. <strong>Objectives:</strong> This study was intended to determine phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of the aforementioned plants. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Plants were collected and the aqueous crude extracts were prepared. Phytochemicals were screened qualitatively and DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was measured at 517nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s comparison test of the Graph Pad Prism version 6. <strong>Results:</strong> The plant extracts exhibited various phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids and tannins, while these were absent in <em>C. myrrha</em>. Steroids and terpenoides were absent in <em>A. pulcherrima</em> and <em>G. fruticosus</em> extracts, respectively. DPPH scavenging capacities of <em>S. punctata, G. fruticosus, A. pulcherrima</em> and <em>A. aspera</em> aqueous extracts were 92.3%, 81.6%, 72.3% and 54.9%, respectively compared to control (Ascorbic acid) showed 87.6%, 94.5%, 92.3% and 95.6%, respectively at inhibitory concentrations of 0.20 mg/ml, 0.78 mg/ ml, 3.13 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. The IC<sub>50</sub> antioxidant values of<em> S. punctata</em>, <em>A. pulcherrima, G. fruticosus,</em> and <em>A. aspera </em>extracts were 0.01 ±0.003 mg/ml, 0.42 ±0.047 mg/ml, 1.64 ±0.147 mg/ml, and 13.51 ±1.08 mg/ml, respectively compared to Ascorbic acid (0.03 ±0.007 mg/ml). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The phytoconstituents in <em>S. punctata</em> aqueous extract has the best capability to scavenge DPPH free radicals. Future characterizations of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities will be required.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020 RETRACTED: Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplementation and Physical Activity on Skeletal Muscle of Male Albino Rat 2021-01-29T00:39:19-05:00 Towseef Ahmad Tantry Nazir Ahmad Wani <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study investigated the effect of grape seed extract on swim exercise and oxidative stress in acute and chronically exercised rats.<strong> Methods:</strong> This study was attempted on one month old male albino Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to swim exercise daily for duration of 30 min Day-1. During the experiment estimation of blood parameters, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. <strong>Results:</strong> The endurance capacity was increased by 2.7-fold in the supplemented trainees as compared to the unsupplemented swim trainees which showed an increase by 1.9 fold by the end of 9 weeks compared to the first week. Plasma lactate showed a significant reduction by 25% and 37% in swim trained and supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary. The haemoglobin level showed an increase in the swim trained rats by 19% and 28% in the supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary animals. The packed cell volume increased in swim trained rats by 10% and 19% in the supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary animals. Supplemented trained rats showed a reduction in total cholesterol by 13 % and 15.55% in swim trainees with and without supplementation compared to the sedentary rats respectively. The catalase activity exhibited a significant change in supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary by 20% in Soleus and 71% in extensor digitorum longus compared with the respective sedentary muscle and by 7.5% and 28% compared to the unsupplemented trainees. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, grape seed extract reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzymes activity.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Ameliorate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy 2021-01-29T00:46:54-05:00 Tesaka Wondimnew Solomon Genet Natesan Gnanasekaran <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has significantly enhanced the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients. However, utilization of HAART has been identified with adverse events including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). <strong>Objectives: </strong>The Objective of this experiment was to explore the conceivable protective effect of green tea (<em>Camellia sinensis</em>) hydro-methonolic extract (GTE) on highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced NAFLD in albino Wistar rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty adult rats of comparative weights were chosen and divided into 5 groups of six rats each. Group-1 was a control group, Group II was given HAART and served as negative control, Groups III, IV and V were given HAART and 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of GTE, respectively for sixty days. At the end of experiment day, the rats were fasted overnight sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood was taken via cardiac puncture. Serum was separated and liver function test was assessed. Liver were excised from the rats, histopathological studies and lipid profiles were also investigated.<strong> Results: </strong>Elevated levels of serum TGL, total cholesterol, ALT, AST and liver TGL, TBARS and decreased levels of TAC was seen in HARRT treated rats. The amelioration potential of GTE was observed in a dose-dependent manner, the highest dose 400mg/kg more potently ameliorated HAART affected parameters near to the normal control. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This consequence of HAART induced NAFLD may be due to oxidative stress by mitochondrial ROS that leads to increased hepatocellular oxidative damage. This may progress to hepatic inflammation and the development of NAFLD. The effect of GTE against NAFLD and oxidative stress might be due to its antioxidant activity and scavenging of reactive oxygen species induced by HAART.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 2020