Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-12-31T06:46:31-05:00 S Chakraborty Open Journal Systems <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> Childhood Obesity: Still a Major Concern 2021-12-31T04:57:19-05:00 Subramani Parasuraman Venkateskumar Krishnamoorthy <p style="text-align: justify;">Overweight and obesity are defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health”.<sup>1</sup> The prevalence of obesity is increasing every year and has nearly tripled since 1975. More than 19 billon adults in 2016 and about 89 million children under the age 5 years are obese in 2020.<sup>2</sup> World Obesity Federation estimates suggest that about 250 million children ageing between 5 and 19 years old will be obese by 2030. Reports also predict that the population of obese children (5 and 19 years) are expected to rise to 62 million in China, 27 million in India, 17 million in the USA, 1.8 million in Malaysia, 1.3 million in the UK and 0.08 million in Singapore by 2030.<sup>3</sup> The complete data on ‘Childhood Obesity’ is available in ‘Atlas of Childhood Obesity [2019 edition]’ published by the World Obesity Federation, London. Again, the COVID-19 pandemic had significantly affected children’s daily lives, reduced their physical activity, increased their stress levels and had contributed to such a high incidence of childhood obesity.<sup>4,5</sup> Woolford <em>et al</em>., assessed the changes in body-mass index (increased) among children during COVID- 19 restrictions and reported an increase in pediatric obesity during the aforesaid period.<sup>6</sup></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 In vitro antioxidant activities of a poly herbal preparation: Sarasvatha Choorna 2021-10-16T09:48:21-04:00 Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala Tika Dewayalage Nimal Karunaratne Kahapola Sugatharatana Hettiarachchige Sammy Ariyawansa Hapangama Asitha De Silva <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> <em>Sarasvatha choorna</em> is one of the polyherbal preparations used for the management of dementia and contains 12 medicinal plants and rock salt. It is well known that free radicals attack the brain tissue and cause dementia which lead to impair the memory performance. Therefore, an attempt was taken to investigate the antioxidant activities of the water extract and the ethanol extract of <em>Sarasvatha choorna</em>. <strong>Methods:</strong> <em>Via</em> ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assays. <strong>Results:</strong> FRAP (295.67 ± 5.48mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract), ORAC (45.09 ± 0.79mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) and ABTS (99.22 ± 4.96mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) values of the ethanol extract was significantly higher than those of the water extract (FRAP: 170.01 ± 1.17 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract; ORAC: 29.73 ± 2.60 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract and ABTS: 47.17 ± 1.24 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract). In contrast, DPPH scavenging ability of the water extract (9.89 ± 0.32mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) was significantly higher than that of the ethanol extract (6.69 ± 0.0mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Sarasvatha choorna</em> has potent antioxidant activities and may play a major role to attack free radicals which is one of causes for dementia.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Dregea volubilis Linn. on Chromium (vi)-Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats 2021-10-06T00:29:17-04:00 Venkatesan Natarajan Vishwanath BA <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate the <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant potential of various extracts of <em>Dregea volubilis</em> on chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Animals were treated with plant extracts for 28 days and then oxidative stress was induced with a single doses of Chromium 30mg/kg (p.o.). Treated with 200 mg/kg (p.o.) of alcoholic extract of<em> Dregea volubilis</em> and determine the glutathione, SOD, catalase, peroxidise and transaminase enzymes levels. <strong>Results:</strong> The present studies revealed that <em>Dregea volubilis</em> has significant<em> in vivo</em> antioxidant activity and can be used to protect tissue from oxidative stress. The result showed that the activities of glutathione, SOD, catalase and peroxidise and tranaminase enzymes in group treated with chromium (VI) declined significantly than that of compared with control group. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ethanolic extract of <em>Dregea volubilis</em> in the dose of 200 mg/kg, p.o., has improved the glutathione, SOD, catalase, and peroxidase and transaminase enzymes levels significantly, which were comparable with Vitamin-E. Based on this study we conclude that Alcoholic extract of <em>Dregea volubilis</em> possesses <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant activity and can be employed in protecting tissue from oxidative stress.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants In vitro Antioxidant Property and Acute Toxicity Study of Methanol Extract of Leaves of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa 2021-08-08T07:10:05-04:00 Osebhahiemen Ibukun Eniola Esther Oluwadare <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (ginger) and <em>Curcuma longa</em> (turmeric) are perennial herbs grown in tropical and sub- tropical regions. Both plants have unique aroma and are used for the treatment of various diseases. Their roots have been extensively studied by other researchers. Therefore, this current study focused on the leaves rather than roots, evaluating the phytochemical constituents, <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity and acute toxicity. <strong>Methods:</strong> Screening of phytochemicals and<em> in vitro</em> antioxidant activity were carried out spectrophotometrically using standard protocols. Acute toxicity testing was done by administering (orally) varying concentrations (100-2000mg/kg body weight) of extracts to Wistar rats weighing 120-140 (grams) <strong>Results:</strong> Flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, saponinis, glycosides and steroids were qualitatively detected in both extracts. Quantitatively, methanol extract of leaves of <em>Zingiber officinale</em> had significantly higher (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) concentrations of total phenol, total flavonoids, total tannins, total proanthocyanidins, total hydroxy cinnamic acids, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extract of <em>Curcuma longa.</em> Furthermore, there was no physical sign of intoxication or mortality in rats that were administered the extracts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Leaves of Zingiber officinale and <em>Curcuma longa</em> may be good sources of safe phytochemicals and antioxidants that would be useful in the food and pharmaceutical sectors.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Shujabad Area in Multan, Pakistan 2021-07-06T10:20:39-04:00 Salma Ghaffar Shazia Jabeen Tahir Mehmood Muhammad Qasim Hayat Mudassir Iqbal <p><strong>Background:</strong> In humans, especially in elderly patients, free radicals and oxidative stress are one of the main reasons behind a number of diseases/disorders, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary and neuronal in nature. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate substances/compounds that possess potent free radical scavenging activity, especially, from the indigenous flora. <strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was aimed to screen the free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic and methanolic leaf extracts of three medicinal plants: <em>Syzygium cumini,</em> <em>Psidium guajava</em> and <em>Callicarpa dichotoma</em>. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) and Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) scavenging assays. Various concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000μg/ml) of plant extract were used to carry out the assays and Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. The free radical quenching potential was expressed in inhibition percentage (%) and concentrations were expressed in μg/ml. Optical density of DPPH and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was measured using spectrophotometer at 517 and 230 nm, respectively. <strong>Results:</strong> Results from the DPPH and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> assays showed that antioxidant activities were observed to be highest in <em>P. guajava</em> (89 and 81% respectively) followed by<em> S. cumini</em> (84 and 72% respectively) and <em>C. dichotoma</em> (83 and 70% respectively) in the ethanolic extracts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that the selected plant materials used for the study have a powerful antioxidant potential and could be used in various therapeutic and medicinal applications.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants Aqueous Fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (L) Leaf Extract Protects Sperm Membrane Integrity in Plumbagin-induced Testicular Damage in Rats 2021-11-09T05:11:45-05:00 Aanuoluwa James Salemcity Temitope Sekinat Agbaje Magdalene Eno Effiong Steve Osagie Asuelimen <p><strong>Background:</strong> Infertility in male has been associated with oxidative stress which cause membrane damage. The presence of a wide array of secondary metabolites with enormous antioxidant potentials have resulted in the increased medicinal value placed on plants for treatment of various ailments. <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> is a widely consumed herb well known for its nutritional and medicinal significance. Nevertheless, there is scarcity of information on the impact of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> on plumbagin-stimulated male reproductive dysfunction. Therefore this study was designed to determine the effect of aqueous fraction of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> (AFOG) leaf extract on sperm plasma membrane integrity and antioxidant status in plumbagin-induced infertility in male wistar rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty animals were divided into four equal groups: normal control, 8mg/kg plumbagin, groups administered Plumbagin and treated with 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg AFOG leaf by gavaging for 14 days. <strong>Results:</strong> The AFOG (100mg/kg and 400mg/kg) significantly (P&lt;0.05) prevented plumbagin-mediated increase in lipid peroxidation but increased antioxidant parameters [such as glutathione reduced (GSH) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT)] in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AFOG significantly reversed decrease in testosterone and estradiol levels in plumbagin-induced sterility in male rats and this was corroborated by a significant improvement in sperm features and testes histo-architectures of the co-treated animals. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It could therefore be inferred from the above data that<em> Ocimum gratissimum</em> exhibited its cytoprotective role in male reproductive dysfunction via prevention of oxidative stress and maintenance of membrane stability.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants Radiation Injury: Mechanism of Toxicity and Countermeasures 2021-08-03T12:41:21-04:00 Alok Kumar Soni Ankita Soni Neeraj Upmanyu Gurusamy Mathu Kannan Nirmal Dongre <p>This paper aims to review the basic concept of radiation biology and better understand the mechanism of toxicity when interacting with living tissue. The main content of this review includes the source of radiations, unit and measurement, mechanism of tissue injury and possible effects from that exposure; theoretic dose-response curves and their uses in radiation biology; stochastic versus non-stochastic effects of radiation exposure possible acute and chronic radiation exposure effects. Apart from that, we have also reviewed the recent development and progress available as well as under investigation, potential countermeasures compounds against the radiation-induced injury.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants