Free Radicals and Antioxidants https://antiox.org/index.php/fra <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> EManuscript en-US Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2231-2536 Photochemoprotective Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Senegalia polyphylla Leaves in Ultraviolet-Irradiated L929 Fibroblasts https://antiox.org/index.php/fra/article/view/298 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes oxidative damages to skin cells. Topical administration of antioxidants is a feasible strategy to prevent oxidative alterations. Therefore, the present study evaluated the photodamage attenuating potential of plant materials from <em>Senegalia polyphylla </em>leaves, due to previous studies relating <em>Senegalia </em>species as a source of antioxidant phenolic compounds. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The ethanolic extract (EE) and its ethyl acetate (EAF), hydromethanolic and hexane fractions were evaluated for their total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The photochemoprotective effects of plant materials with higher antioxidant potential were assessed in L929 fibroblasts against ultraviolet-B (UVB) and Ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiations. Phytochemical investigation of bioactive plant material was performed and compounds identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>The EE and EAF presented the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, showing ferric reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals DPPH•, ABTS•<sub>+</sub>, O<sub>2</sub>•− and ROO•. The EE and EAF treatments prior to UVB and UVA irradiation prevented the decrease in cell viability, and attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, reduced glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane disruption, especially with EAF treatment. Vitexin and isoquercetin, known antioxidant compounds, were isolated from EAF, which may be correlated with its photochemoprotective ability. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Findings indicate the potential of polyphenol-enriched botanical materials, such as EAF from <em>S. polyphylla</em>, in preventing UVB and UVA-induced oxidative damages, due to its effective antioxidant activity and ability to attenuate redox imbalance and reduce cell damages.</p> Regina Gomes Daré Lilian dos Anjos Oliveira Ferreira Fabianne Martins Ribeiro Jesuí Vergilio Visentainer Celso Vataru Nakamura Maria da Conceição Torrado Truiti Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 11 1 7 12 10.5530/fra.2021.1.2 Anti-Alzheimer’s Potential of Different Varieties of Piper betle Leaves and Molecular Docking Analyses of Metabolites https://antiox.org/index.php/fra/article/view/299 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to prevent symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease which is initiated due to oxidative stress. <em>Piper betle </em>L. is a tropical evergreen perennial vine whose leaves are widely consumed as masticator in Asia and has medicinal properties. <strong>Objectives: </strong>The present study is aimed to investigate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property of methanolic extracts of different varieties of <em>Piper betle </em>leaves and chemometrically identify different bioactive ingredients <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in silico</em>. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Methanol extracts of the leaves collected in February and October from eight varieties of <em>P. betle </em>(Chhanchi, Bagerhati, Manikdanga, Kalibangla, Bangla, Ghanagete, Meetha and Haldi) were studied for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Chemical components were analyzed by Gas Chromatography – Mass spectrometry and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Active metabolites were identified chemometrically. The activities were proved <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in silico</em>. <strong>Results: </strong>All the extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Statistical analysis suggested that several phenolic compounds were correlated to anti-cholinesterase activity. Piceatannol, hydroxychavicol, benzene-1,2,4-triol, and 4-methylcatechol are reported here to have such enzyme inhibitory properties. These four small molecules were further subjected to molecular docking analysis to explore their binding mechanism with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. All the four small molecules are found to interact with the targeted enzyme in similar fashion like the molecular interactions observed for the standard inhibitor, Donepezil, at the active site of acetylcholiesterase. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus, consumption of <em>P. betle </em>leaves may have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.</p> Bratati De Mamita Debnath Susmita Das Shovonlal Bhowmick Swagata Karak Achintya Saha Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 11 1 13 18 10.5530/fra.2021.1.3 Antioxidant Profile of Shilajatu (Asphaltum punjabinum): Impact of Drava/Media and Bhumi/Geography https://antiox.org/index.php/fra/article/view/302 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The superoxide radical (O<sub>2</sub>-), hydroxyl radical (OH) are generated in physiochemical pathways. All biological systems have innate antioxidant defence mechanisms but these mechanisms can be inefficient due to poor diet intake, pollution, stress and chemicals etc. Therefore, it is imperative to consume antioxidants to shield cells from destruction by free radicals. <em>Shilajatu </em>is such a drugs of prime importance that has been advocated in the management of various ailments ranging from Diabetes to Immunomodulation and Antioxidant<em>. </em><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The antioxidant potential of <em>Shuddha Shilajatu </em>along with impact of geography and processing media on it, was determined by using DPPH i.e. 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Assay. Test was performed at the wavelength of 517 nm using 1 cm optical path cuvette at room temperature. The ultraviolet spectrum of <em>Shuddha Shilajatu </em>and Ascorbic acid was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at different concen­trations. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. The result was compared with ascorbic acid as it was taken as standard control under the same conditions. The sample concentration at which initial absorbance of DPPH solution get lowered by 50% has been considered as the endpoint for evaluating the antioxidant potential. <strong>Results: </strong>It has been found that <em>Shilajatu </em>samples processed in <em>Triphala kwatha </em>have shown better antioxidant profile than water processed samples. Moreover, sample procured from Amritsar showed much better antioxidant activity in comparison to <em>Shilajatu </em>sample procured from Nepal. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Processing media and geography significantly modulate the effect and activities of <em>Shilajatu</em>.</p> Rohit Singh Shreshtha Kaushik Pramod Yadav Pradeep Kumar Prajapati Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 11 1 19 23 10.5530/fra.2021.1.4 Clinical Attestation and Redox Mechanism of Ascorbic Acid in the Treatment of Cancer https://antiox.org/index.php/fra/article/view/296 <p>Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential micro-nutrient, an outstanding antioxidant and an essential co-factor in different mammalian enzymatic processes. There is considerable clinical attestation that, high dose of intravenous ascorbic acid can improve cancer patients with or without extant therapeutic involvements. Ascorbic acid in high intravenous doses serves as pro-oxidant and promotes the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidative stress-induced toxicity selectively to cancer cells. This effect also hampers the bioenergetics and angiogenesis of malignant cells, resulting in cancer cell death. Large doses of ascorbic acid are safe and well-tolerated. On account of its antioxidant effect, ascorbic acid supplementation may be applied as an adjuvant with regular cancer therapy to minimize complications. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for further mechanistic studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the benefit of ascorbic acid in the treatment of cancer.</p> Sanjib Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 11 1 1 6 10.5530/fra.2021.1.1 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts of seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum https://antiox.org/index.php/fra/article/view/301 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To study the antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of seeds of <em>Macrotyloma uniflorum</em>. <strong>Methods: </strong>The seeds of <em>M. uniflorum </em>were extracted with methanol and ethanol and used for the phytochemical analysis and determination of antioxidant activity. The <em>in vitro </em>antioxidant activity was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods. <strong>Result: </strong>Ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>showed more phenolic content (63.48 mg GAE/g) than methanolic extract of <em>M. uniflorum </em>(45.84 mg GAE/g). In total flavonoid content analysis, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>showed the presence of flavonoid content of 15.31 mg Rutin/g and 15.44 mg Rutin/g, respectively. In DPPH assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>exhibited 50% free radical scavenging activity at 797.71 ± 34.38 μg/mL and 938.80 ± 66.05 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; <em>n </em>= 3), respectively. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>exhibited 50% fee radical scavenging activity at 770.27 ± 11.64 μg/ mL and 844.94 ± 35.12 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; <em>n </em>= 3), respectively. Ascorbic acid exhibited potent free radical scavenging with IC50 value of 60.54 ± 5.23 μg/mL in DPPH method and 207.98 ± 14.26 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; <em>n </em>= 3) in hydroxyl radical scavenging method. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>showed more phe­nolic content than methanolic extract of <em>M. uniflorum</em>. In both, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of <em>M. uniflorum </em>exhibited antioxidant activity at higher concentration.</p> Subramani Parasuraman Vanishya A/P Raipan Copyright (c) 2021 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 11 1 24 26 10.5530/fra.2021.1.5