Free Radicals and Antioxidants <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> EManuscript en-US Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2231-2536 Therapeutic Role of the Liver X Receptor in Modulation of Metabolic Diseases and Future Scenarios <p>Liver X receptors (LXRs) are part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are cholesteroldetecting receptors. LXRs are commonly found in two isoforms: LXR and LXR. LXRs were initially identified as orphan receptors from a rat cDNA library using an oligonucleotide probe. The regulatory activities of LXR in obesity are the subject of this review. LXRs directly operate on numerous target genes such as ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG8, GLUT4, and other rate-limiting enzymes such as PEPCK, G6P, and F6P, and so play an important role in the treatment of obesity. LXR may interfere with obesity via several signaling mechanisms. The first is through ABC genes, which promote the clearance of excess bodily cholesterol via the lipid removal route from cholesterol-loaded macrophages and intestinal lumen. The second strategy involves boosting GLUT4 expression by increasing glucose absorption by peripheral tissues, and the third involves inhibiting rate-limiting enzymes PCPCK, G6P, and F6P, which eventually decrease hepatic glucose synthesis. LXR’s physiological activities suggest that it might be a promising target for obesity therapy</p> Renu Kumari Rana Souravh Bais Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 01 08 10.5530/fra.2022.1.1 Haematological Parameters and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Rugby Players <p><strong>Background: </strong>Rugby is team sport and posses both running and contact play features. In a similar way as another sport producing both physical and psychological stress and both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, rugby induces intensive oxidative stress. This in turn decreases glutathione peroxidase activity. Furthermore, the complete blood count is severely altered by such a condition.<strong> Methods:</strong> Twelve Italian rugby players were studied. Subjects were studied in the morning of the day of the match and 10 min after the end of match. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was analyzed in control and athlete groups pre and post the rugby match both with and without <em>in vitro</em> addition of vitamin C. Using a Coulter counter, we measured red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell count, platelets, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils in 12 male athletes, who gave their informed consensus. <strong>Results:</strong> GPX data show that its activity is increased by the <em>in vitro </em>addition of Vitamin C (48mM final concentration), both in controls and rugby players. Haematological data describe the major alterations of particulate fraction of blood from rugby players before and after one match and confirm the structural damages in this fraction. GPX activity is worsened by this kind of strenuous exercise and ascorbic acid relieves such damage. Complete blood cell counts of athletes confirm blood cell damages.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>In summary rugby players show evident cell count derangements and water-soluble reducing Vitamin C relieves oxidative damages of samples from test subjects undergone to full match fatigue.</p> Giuseppe Gallo Sergio Mazzulla Guglielmo Martino Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 09 14 10.5530/fra.2022.1.2 Studies on in vitro Radical Scavenging Potentials of Methanol Leaf Extract of Ficus sur and its Fractions <p><strong>Background: </strong>In many rural areas of Nigeria, <em>Ficus sur</em> is traditionally used in the management of many diseases some of whose pathogenesis implicate free radicals.<strong> Objectives:</strong> To determine the phenolic contents and the <em>in vitro</em> radical scavenging activities of methanol extracts of <em>Ficus sur</em> (MEFS) and its hydromethanol (HMFS), ethyl acetate (EAFS) and hexane (HFFS) fractions. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The leaves of <em>Ficus sur </em>were air dried, extracted with absolute methanol, and then partitioned sequentially with hexane and ethyl acetate. The phenolic contents of the parent extract and the fractions were determined. The scavenging activities of the extracts towards 1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, propagating lipid peroxyl and nitric oxide radicals were examined quantitatively. <strong>Results: </strong>Total phenol, flavonols and flavonoids were high in MEFS, moderate in EAFS and low in HFFS. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical (IC<sub>50</sub> = 42.35± 3.55- 169.43 ± 16.43 , hydroxyl radical (IC<sub>50</sub> = 55.58 ±8.16- 318.33± 14), peroxyl radical (IC<sub>50</sub> = 60.33± 13.8- 219± 36.44 μg/ml) and nitric oxide radical (IC<sub>50 </sub>= 41.94 ±6.65- 210.5 ± 11.3 μg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. The flavonoid contents of the extracts inversely correlated with the IC<sub>50</sub> values of free radical scavenging activities. Overall, the radical scavenging abilities of MEFS and its fraction follow the order: MEFS&gt; HMFS&gt; EAFS&gt; HFFS. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence, it may be concluded that extracts that have higher phenolic contents are superior to those with lower phenolic contents in radical scavenging activities, which cement the fact that, indeed, phenolics are largely responsible for the invitro antioxidant activities of the plant extracts.</p> Kelechi Nwabueze Obi Eugene Nwaogwugwu Onyeike Francis Chukwuma Anacletus Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 15 21 10.5530/fra.2022.1.3 Analysis of Antioxidant, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Indian Himalayan Species of Berberis: A Comparative Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Methanolic extracts of the stems of six species of Berberis e.g.,<em> Berberis umbellata, B. vulgaris (Syn: B. nepalensis</em>),<em> B. insignis,</em> <em>B. asiatica</em>, and <em>B. aristata </em>were studied for their antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. <strong>Materials and Methods </strong>: Antioxidant property was studied in different systems of assay e.g., DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, assay to chelate metal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory property was measured using AChE from electric eel. <strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that all the extracts scavenged DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical and chelated metal ion in a dose dependent manner. The antioxidant properties were correlated with total phenol content, total flavonoid content, berberine and palmatine content. The AChE inhibitory activities of the extracts were also correlated well with berberine, palmatine, total phenol and total flavonoid content. A few phenolic compounds were detected by GC-MS. Highest activity in all respect was observed in <em>B. aristata.</em> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Methanolic extracts of the stems of<em> B. aristata</em> exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.</p> Gargi Nag Ipsita De Pradhan Poulami Gupta Bratati De Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 22 26 10.5530/fra.2022.1.4 Microscopic Evaluation and Antioxidant Activity of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach. (Family Tiliaceae) <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background</strong>:<em> Glyphaea brevis </em>has been used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments, some of which are linked to oxidative stress. Despite the numerous studies on the biological activities of <em>G. brevis,</em> no literature was found on the microscopic study of this plant, which is essential for preparation of its monograph. As a result, the antioxidant activity of <em>G. brevis </em>and its qualitative microscopic characteristics were investigated in this study. <strong>Methods:</strong> The adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers of the <em>G. brevis </em>leaf, as well as transverse sections of the midrib and petiole, were obtained, cleared, and examined under a light microscope at X100 and X400 magnifications. The antioxidant activity of the crude methanol extract and fractions of <em>G. brevis</em> was evaluated via bioautographic method using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl- hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC) and the total flavonoid content (TFC).<strong> Results: </strong>Microscopic examination of the leaf revealed the presence of straight and few wavy thin-walled polygonal epidermal cells in the adaxial and abaxial layers, numerous stomata cells ranging from anisocytic, anomocytic, to paracytic in the abaxial layer, and various types of trichomes in both adaxial and abaxial layers. The FRSA and TFC were highest in the crude extract. The ethyl acetate fraction of<em> G. brevis </em>had highest FRSA, whereas the hexane fraction had the least. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The microscopic study revealed characters that can be used to identify <em>Glyphaea brevis,</em> while the free radical scavenging activity supports its use in the treatment of many oxidative stress related diseases</p> Mubo Adeola Sonibare Taiwo Rukayat Onifade Akingbolabo Daniel Ogunlakin Opeyemi Josephine Akinmurele Samuel Abayomi Adebodun Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 27 32 10.5530/fra.2022.1.5 Comparative Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sida cardifolia, Abutilon indicum and Mesua ferrea <p><strong>Background:</strong> Phenolic constituents of plant are the prime source of antioxidants. Natural antioxidant biomolecules become an emerging research area of this era because of their antioxidant potential. Accumulation of free radicals results in occurrence of many degenerative diseases and produced harmful effect on body. Research evidence proved that plant phenolic constituents have an antioxidant potential and has been used for the treatment of degenerative diseases. Therefore, an attempt was taken to investigate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of<em> Sida cardifolia, Abutilon indicum </em>and <em>Mesua ferrea.</em> <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Alcoholic, hydroalcoholic and water extracts of <em>S. cardifolia,</em> <em>A. indicum </em>and<em> M. ferrea</em> were prepared and total phenolic content was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method, and antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging method. <strong>Results:</strong> Poly phenolic Result revealed that hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>S. cardifolia,</em> <em>A. indicum </em>and <em>M. ferrea</em> showed maximum phenolic content than the alcoholic and water extracts. In vitro Antioxidant study revealed that hydroalcoholic extract of <em>S. cardifolia</em> and <em>M. ferrea</em> showed optimum antioxidant activity while aqueous extract of A. indicum showed maximum antioxidant activity. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Aqueous extract of A. indicum showed maximum antioxidant activity than hydroalcoholic extract of <em>S. cardifolia </em>and <em>M. ferrea.</em></p> Jyotsna Anandrao Saonere M.A Channawar S.L Deore Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 33 35 10.5530/fra.2022.1.6 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Carica papaya Seed on Renal Function and Antioxidant Activities Following Ibuprofen-induced Toxicity on Male Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, the effect of methanolic seed extract of <em>Carica papaya </em>(MSECP) was investigated to ascertain its effect on the renal function and antioxidants activities following ibuprofen induced renal toxicity. Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins while anthraquinone and phlobatannins were found to be absent. Thirty (30) healthy male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. Group A (received feed and water only); Group B received 80mg/kg of ibuprofen only; Group C received 80mg/kg of ibuprofen + 150mg/kg of MSECP; Group D received 80mg/kg of ibuprofen + 300mg/kg of MSECP; Group E (received 80mg/kg of ibuprofen and treated with 600mg/kg of (MSECP). The administration of the extract lasted for 21 days within hours of 7-8 am via oral gavage. After 21 days the animals were anesthetized with 25% Urethane and blood was collected using a heparinized capillary tube and transferred into a plain container and centrifuged. The serum retrieved was used to assay serum antioxidants Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase activity (CAT), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Total Antioxidant capacity (TAC) and kidney enzymes (urea and creatinine). MSECP significantly reduced the plasma concentration of urea and creatinine (p&gt;0.05) when compared to group A. The antioxidant enzymes reduced significantly (p&gt;0.05) in groups that was administered with MSECP when compared to the group A and B. MSECP was discovered to have some therapeutic effect on renal function probably as a result of some of the antioxidants and phytonutrients present in <em>Carica papaya</em> which have the capability of increasing glomerular filtration of toxic substances from the kidney and hence recommend that <em>Carica papaya </em>seed could be included in our daily diet.</p> Ani Celestine Okafor Ezeokafor Emmanuel Nonso Okolo Kenneth Obinna Abayomi David Mark Nweke Maduka Luke Okeke Adaobi Pearl Chukwu JohnAja O’Brien Agu Francis Uchenna Agbor Joseph Ikenna Ndubuisi Nonso Richard Nwanaga Clinton Uche Iheanacho Hannah Mmesoma Ogbodo Chidiebere Angela Eghosa Edorisiagbon Iyare Nwachukwu Daniel Chukwu Omire-oluedo Okechykwu Copyright (c) 2022 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 12 1 36 40 10.5530/fra.2022.1.7