Free Radicals and Antioxidants <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> EManuscript en-US Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2231-2536 Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Vanillin in Isoniazid-Rifampicin Induced Hepatocellular Damage <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Natural products are greatly acknowledged for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Vanillin has been studied for radical scavenging effect. The aim of this study was to examine hepatoprotective effect of vanillin against isoniazid and rifampicin induced liver damage in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Wistar rats were used in present study. All the animals study protocols were duly approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of the Institute. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of against isoniazid (50 mg/kg) and rifampicin (100 mg/kg) for 14 days. Vanillin was used in the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. At the end of study blood was collected and biochemical studies were performed to assess antioxidant status.<strong> Results:</strong> Oral administration of vanillin at test doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight) resulted in restoration of AST, ALT and ALP. There was a notable decrease in production of SOD and catalase. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the present study, vanillin demonstrated a notable hepatoprotective effect. The protective efficacy of vanillin is possibly because of radical scavenging and antioxidant property.</p> Rashint Tiwari Ayushi Chourasia Aman Chaturvedi Aditya Ganeshpurkar Nazneen Dubey Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 42 46 10.5530/fra.2020.1.8 Long-Term Preservation of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Extra Virgin Olive Oil: A Physico-biochemical Approach <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This work, on low-cost controlled freeze methodology for stabilizing the phenolic content in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO), is evaluated by studying four Quality Indexes (QIs): free acidity, as % of oleic acid (1<sup>st</sup>-QI); UV-absorption values; K<sub>272</sub>, K<sub>232</sub> and ΔK (2<sup>nd</sup>-QI); total phenolic content (TPC), as Gallic acid equivalence (3<sup>rd</sup>-QI); and lipid peroxidation products, as free malondialdehyde (MDA) (4th-QI). <strong>Methods:</strong> The study of QIs for EVOO under storage, absence of light, at 25, 4, -20 and -80°C, with or without N<sub>2</sub>-purge showed that the phenolic charge is stabilized for &gt; 12 months, at refrigeration conditions storage (~ 4°C) in the absence of oxygen, whilst the peroxidation of lipids is being kept at a low level. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the high concentration of natural hydroxylphenols in the EVOO in combination with its degassing (via N<sub>2</sub>-purge) and storage at ~ 4°C, constitute the optimum conditions for preservation of olive oil as a long-lasting EVOO (LL [legal limit]-EVOO) with high added value. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The main scientific contribution of this study is: (i) development and evaluation of a methodology (freeze controlled treatment) for the long-term preservation of EVOO quality, (ii) understanding the physicochemical mechanism and factors determining EVOO quality and (iii) ready-to-use technology for the local and international market.</p> Evangelos Giannakopoulos Georgios Salachas Dimitrios Zisimopoulos Sofia-Anna Barla Electra Kalaitzopoulou Polyxeni Papadea Marianna Skipitari Christos D. Georgiou Copyright (c) 2020 Phcog.Net 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 4 9 10.5530/fra.2020.1.2 Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Newbouldia laevis Leaf extracts <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of life-threatening disease conditions. <em>Newbouldia laevis</em> (NL) have been used in folk medicine for stress related conditions, however, there is paucity of reports suggesting a connection between its efficacy and a possible antioxidant property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of NL leaf extracts. <strong>Methods:</strong> The methanol extract of NL was partitioned to obtain the chloroform fraction (CFNL) and the aqueous fraction (AFNL). Following standard laboratory procedures, the parameters were measured spectrophotometrically. <strong>Results:</strong> The MFNL recorded the highest activity for DPPH (76.4%), while all extracts only showed slight hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity. Total antioxidant capacity at uniform concentration revealed an increasing order of activity from AFNL to MENL, correlating with total phenol contents which is in the same order. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation in a concentration dependent manner, with MENL recording the highest inhibition of 19.5%. The MENL however had the highest vitamin C concentration of 165.44mg/100ml. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The above results not only demonstrate the antioxidant properties of NL, but suggests this as one of its possible mechanism of action and indicates the presence of potent principles with potential for application in stress related ailments.</p> Aanuoluwa James Salemcity Victoria Obiageli Nwaneri-Chidozie Emmanuel Adameh Magdalene Eno Effiong Copyright (c) 2020 Phcog.Net 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 10 15 10.5530/fra.2020.1.3 Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Methanolic extract of Bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in Diabetic Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em> or Ceylon cinnamon is used for the management of dyspepsia, dysmenorrhea, memory loss and tremor. It is also traditionally recommended for the management of diabetes. Further studies are required to explore the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of various extracts of bark of <em>C. zeylanicum</em>. Hence, the present study is planned to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract of barks of <em>C. zeylanicum</em>. <strong>Methods:</strong> Bark of <em>C. zeylanicum</em> was extracted with methanol, ethanol and acetone and its antioxidant activity was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays. Acute toxic effect of methanolic extract of <em>C. zeylanicum</em> (MECZ) studied as per the method described in OECD Guideline for testing of chemicals (Test Guideline 423). MECZ was studied for its antidiabetic effect using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.<strong> Results:</strong> In both DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay, methanolic and acetone extracts exhibited free radical scavenging activity, respectively. In acute toxicity testing, MECZ did not show any significant toxic signs up to 2000 mg/kg, hence the antidiabetic activity of MECZ was carried out at the dose levels of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. MECZ showed antidiabetic activity from 2nd week of the experiment onward. In the biochemical analysis, MECZ treated animals showed significant decreases in the levels of ALP and urea when compared with control. In lipid profile analysis, diabetic animals and diabetic animals treated glibenclamide showed significant increases in the levels of total cholesterol when compared with normal control and MECZ prevented the STZ-induced hyperlipidemia. At the end of the study, diabetic animals and diabetic animals treated with glibenclamide and MECZ showed significant decreases in the level of insulin when compared with the control group. In the histopathological analysis, sections from the liver, pancreas and kidney of the diabetic animals showed mid-to-moderate toxic effects and glibenclamide and MECZ 500 mg/kg prevented the STZ-induced cellular changes. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The MECZ exhibited significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.</p> Rasvin Singh Subramani Parasuraman Sathasivam Kathiresan Copyright (c) 2020 Phcog.Net 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 16 23 10.5530/fra.2020.1.4 Cardioprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Amaranthus cruentus in Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study is focused to evaluate cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Amaranthus cruentus</em>. <strong>Methods:</strong> <em>Amaranthus cruentus</em> extract (Dose 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) in isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats. The ethanolic extract of<em> Amaranthus cruentus</em> was prepared and subjected to acute toxicity in albino rats. The extract was given orallyat two different doses 200mg/kg and 400mg/. Isoprenaline was administered subcutaneously (85mg/kg s.c.). <strong>Results:</strong> The histopathological examination revealed mild infarction and inflammation in isoprenaline treated rats. The ethanolic extract of <em>Amaranthus cruentus</em> showed significant cardio protective effect by decreasing the serum level of LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels. The biochemical parameters (AST, ALT and ALP) and HDL cholesterol levels were restored. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcome of the present study suggested cardioprotective activity of <em>Amaranthus cruentus</em> extract.</p> Priya Bisen Aman Chaturvedi Aditya Ganeshpurkar Nazneen Dubey Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 24 28 10.5530/fra.2020.1.5 Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Cadmium Chloride-induced Oxidative Stress in Female Sprague Dawley Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid. EGCG is abundant in dry tea leaves and its effect on heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is not clear. Hence, the present study is planned to study the effect of EGCG on cadmium chloride (CdCl<sub>2</sub>) induced oxidative stress in female Sprague Dawley rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> The rats were divided into six groups with each of six animals <em>viz</em>., control, CdCl<sub>2</sub>, vitamin C, EGCG, CdCl<sub>2</sub> + vitamin C and CdCl<sub>2</sub> + EGCG. CdCl<sub>2</sub> (5 mg/kg) was suspended in carboxymethyl cellulose and administered orally to induce oxidative stress. Vitamin C and EGCG were dissolved in sterile water for injection and administered intraperitoneally within 15 min after CdCl<sub>2</sub> administration. All the animals were administered with respective assigned treatment once daily for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals and serum was separated. The serum sample was used for biochemical analysis. Later, the rats were sacrificed and liver samples were collected and used for antioxidant assay.<strong> Results:</strong> EGCG and vitamin C prevented the CdCl<sub>2</sub>-induced oxidative stress. CdCl<sub>2</sub> administered group showed significant increases in the levels of glucose, AST, ALT and urea when compared with control group, whereas vitamin C and EGCG prevented the CdCl<sub>2</sub>-induced biochemical changes. Vitamin C and EGCG also prevented the CdCl<sub>2</sub>-induced reduction in levels of reduced glutathione and catalase. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> EGCG had significant ameliorative effect on CdCl<sub>2</sub> -induced oxidative stress in experimental animals.</p> Subramani Parasuraman James Yu Kar Beng Lam Chew Hui Brenda Ngu Yen Qin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 29 34 10.5530/fra.2020.1.6 Resveratrol Nanoemulsion; A Promising Inhibitor against Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase - Dependent Inflammation and Ameliorates Nicotine induced-lung Toxicity in Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in smokers. The aim of the present article was to investigate protective activity of resveratrol nanoemulsion (RENE) against lung toxicity induced by nicotine in adult rats as compared to basic resveratrol.<strong> Materials and Methods:</strong> RENE was prepared using bovine serum albumin method, then characterized for their particle size and zeta potential. Furthermore, Adult albino rats weighing around 150 ±10 g were used for the evaluation of lung protective activity of RENE (50 mg/k.b.w.) against nicotine-induced lung toxicity in rats. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean particle size of RENE was 49.5 ± 0.05 nm and zeta potential of +15.75 with the observed shapes of nanoparticle was spherical. The daily oral administration of the RENE at a concentration of 39.75 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to rats treated with nicotine (2.5 mg/kg.b.w.) resulted in a significant improve plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol as well as serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and growth factor (TGF)-β1 in nicotine treated groups rats. On the other hand, oral administration of RENE elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total protein kinase-1 (Akt-1) as well as reduced the level malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung rats treated with nicotine. In addition, RENE reduced the expression of lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) levels as compared to nicotine treated control group. Also, RENE and resveratrol almost normalized these effects in the histoarchitecture of the lung. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The obtained biochemical, molecular biology and histological results of our study proved the lung protective activity of RENE against nicotine induced lung toxicity in rats.</p> Fedaa Talat Mohamed Ammar Yasser Abdelghfour Bassant Argawy Morsy Doaa Diaa Rizk Rania Mahmoud Elwany Samir Abdo Samir Ali Abdelaziz Ali Mohammed Abdalla Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 35 41 10.5530/fra.2020.1.7 Glutamate Receptors in Schizophrenia: A Review <p>The pathophysiology of schizophrenic shows the dysfunction of Glutamate receptors. The inotropic subtypes The NMDA, AMPA and kinate receptors out of various glutamate receptors are most commonly associated. In postmortem brain samples from schizophrenics and controls several levels of gene expression of glutamate receptors were studied. Even though there exist slight inconsistency from various studies certain points. There is an abnormal reduction in the AMPA receptor expression in the schizophrenic hippocampus, including reduced subunit transcript level, protein level and also binding sites. In hippocampus related changes are also seen in the kinate receptor expression. In some cortical regions in schizophrenia NMDAR1 shows abnormal expression. NMDDAR1 is the obligate NMDA receptor subunit. The current review ellustrates the theory of glutamate neurotransmission abnormality in schizophrenia.</p> Shivani Lodha Shagun Upadhyay Khemraj Singh Baghel Yusra Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Phcog.Net 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 1 1 3 10.5530/fra.2020.1.1